State of Center City

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Introduction & Overview

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Center City is the largest place of employment in the city and region, with 292,746 wage and salaried jobs and another 8,500 self-employed individuals, freelancers and those compensated as partners. Girard Avenue to Tasker Street, river to river, is just 5.7% of the city’s land area, but generates 32% of all property tax revenue for the City and School District, holds 42% of all jobs, and accounts for at least 43% of the wage tax generated by jobs in Philadelphia.

Located at the center of the region’s transit and highway network, 49% of downtown jobs are held by commuters from outside the city who also patronize downtown restaurants, retailers and cultural institutions; 51% of jobs are held by Philadelphia residents. Transit makes possible a level of density and accessibility unmatched in the region, concentrating jobs at 59 per acre in Center City and at 38 per acre in University City, compared to 4 per acre in the rest of Philadelphia and less than 1 per acre in the suburbs.

Transit accessibility enables 25% of the workers living in city neighborhoods outside Greater Center City to commute to jobs downtown; another 6% work in University City. In all of these neighborhoods, more people work downtown than in the area where they live. The diversity of opportunity downtown makes this possible. While 38% of Center City jobs require at least a bachelor’s degree, 30% are accessible to those with an associate degree, while another 32% require no more than a high school diploma.

Diversification is the defining strength of downtown’s economy. Professional, business and financial services, real estate and information — prime office-using industries — account for 39.6% of downtown jobs, occupying almost 41 million square feet of space. Education and health services, the largest sector citywide, is the second largest downtown with jobs provided by 15 colleges and universities and five hospitals, accounting for 19.8% of Center City employment. 

Entertainment, leisure, hospitality and retail provide 15.6% of downtown jobs in 419 arts and cultural institutions, 11,139 hotel rooms, 1,049 retail premises and 464 full-service restaurants. Federal, state and local government employment provides 13.2% of Center City jobs. 

Across the country, diverse, mixed-use places are outperforming single-use employment districts and the value of their real estate has significantly increased. 

Philadelphia is enjoying the longest period of economic expansion since the mid-1980s, adding 40,000 jobs in the last 11 years, with positive growth in all but one year since 2005. In 2016, Philadelphia grew by 2.4%, adding 16,000 jobs. Growth has been driven entirely by private-sector gains, with public-sector employment continuing a 25-year trend of contraction.

But job growth in Philadelphia is uneven. Education and health services have grown by 55% since 1990; leisure and hospitality employment is up 56%; professional and business services are 11% above 1990 job levels. Manufacturing, however, has continued its historic contraction, shedding 70% of its remaining jobs since 1990. More troubling, jobs in finance and information services — prime growth sectors for most 21st century cities — are down 40% citywide since 1990.

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Forty percent of downtown jobs are concentrated in 41 million square feet (sf) of commercial office space, with most located in the high-rise towers that define the downtown skyline. Well-served by transit, office buildings provide the densest concentration of jobs and the most diverse employment opportunities: high-skilled positions requiring at least a college degree, technical, support and clerical jobs, as well as building engineers and managers, security personnel and custodians. Every time tenants turn over, construction trades are called on to renovate space. Office workers spend time and money in shops and stores, restaurants, and entertainment venues, creating more than $200 million in annual downtown retail demand. Business travelers accounted for almost one-third of all hotel room nights in 2016.

Despite new added supply, Center City’s office occupancy rate slightly decreased from 88.5% in 2015 to 87.8% in 2016, though still surpassing suburban occupancy levels of 85.9%. Trophy building occupancy was 93%, while Class A and B were at 89% and 88%, respectively. Even though average asking rent rose from $27.44/sf to $29.60/sf, this is still far lower than the leading markets nationally — approximately a third of asking rents in Midtown Manhattan ($82.19), and only half of asking rates in Boston ($55.97) and Washington, D.C. ($52.79). Some of the highest rents in Center City ($31.27) can be found on West Market Street and JFK Boulevard, where the occupancy rate was 88.6% in 2016. Demand for creative office space is pushing rents higher in this subsector of the market, with rents averaging $33.65/sf in the East Market subsector, according to data from Savills Studley.

Creative and amenity-rich shared offices, such as coworking spaces, are stimulating leasing activity, particularly from national operators, who now manage 64% of the 370,589 sf of downtown coworking space, with an additional 80,000 sf in the pipeline. Despite the perception that coworking spaces are filled with young entrepreneurs and startups, many large companies looking to test the market are leasing space in coworking spaces downtown. Coworking office space comprises only 1% of Center City’s total office inventory, but continues to grow and accounted for 13% of all leasing activity in 2016.

Despite these positive trends, Center City’s office sector continues to lag compared to other peer markets. A simple measure of success is the premium businesses are willing to pay to be in the employee- and amenity-rich CBD, as opposed to the suburbs. A sampling of major CBD markets nationwide by Newmark Grubb Knight Frank shows an average CBD, Class A premium of 25% in 2016 — rising to 124% in Boston and 77% in Washington, D.C. In Philadelphia, the premium on Class A downtown space is just 7%, comparable to many sprawling Sunbelt metros. This is in part attributable to the unique reliance of local government on wage and business taxes, as well as on Use and Occupancy tax for the schools, adding significantly to tenant occupancy costs and suppressing rents. With tax reform on the horizon, Philadelphia is poised to capitalize on all its inherent competitive advantages and enter a new era of dynamic growth.

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Healthcare & Higher Education

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Healthcare and educational institutions account for 37% of all jobs in Philadelphia, the largest sector in the city, while downtown, “eds & meds” provide 19.8% of all jobs. From 2005 to 2015, Philadelphia’s higher education sector experienced modest job growth of 9%, while the healthcare and social assistance sector grew by 23%.

The Thomas Jefferson University and Health system, Center City’s largest private employer, employed 13,778 people in 2016, a 15% increase over the previous year. Jefferson continued to expand in 2016 through several mergers and partnerships. The Aria-Jefferson Health merger was completed in 2016, and Jefferson Health acquired a controlling interest in the Rothman Orthopaedic Specialty Hospital in Bensalem, N.J., Jefferson’s ninth hospital in the region. Jefferson Health and Kennedy Health, based in Voorhees, N.J., signed a binding agreement to merge, while Jefferson Health established a new kidney transplant center at Ninth and Chestnut Streets and, in partnership with Rothman Institute, created a multimilliondollar “spine center of excellence” in South Philadelphia. In addition, Thomas Jefferson University and Philadelphia University expect to complete their merger in 2017. Magee Rehabilitation Hospital recently entered into a preliminary agreement to become part of Thomas Jefferson University as well.

Penn Medicine, Drexel University and Children’s Hospital of Pennsylvania (CHOP) increased their combined number of jobs in Center City to 8,148, while nine smaller institutions employed more than 3,100 employees.

Net patient revenue at Center City hospitals — Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Pennsylvania Hospital, Wills Eye Hospital and Hahnemann — totaled $2.43 billion in 2015, a slight increase from $2.30 billion in 2014. In January 2017, Vybe Urgent Care opened a new facility in Center City, joining Jefferson Hospital and the myDoc chain as the only urgent care centers located downtown.

In fall 2015, Center City’s 15 institutions of higher education reported enrollment of more than 32,500 students. Immediately adjacent to downtown, Drexel University, University of Pennsylvania (Penn), University of the Sciences, and Temple University enrolled an additional 75,431, for a total population of more than 107,000 students in or adjacent to downtown. Students rent apartments, shop, frequent bars and restaurants, and enjoy the many amenities of Center City.

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Conventions, Tourism & Hotels

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Hospitality and leisure is the fastest growing sector of employment in Philadelphia, with jobs up 23% since 2010 and up 59% since 1990. Major public and private investments made in the Pennsylvania Convention Center, tourism and cultural attractions, and hotels and restaurants, have paid dividends not only in expanded employment opportunities for Philadelphia residents, but also in the animation of Center City and the diversification of downtown land use.

In 2016, the Pennsylvania Convention Center hosted 19 conventions and trade shows and three gate shows of 2,000 attendees or more, pushing attendance to 1,100,000. Hotel occupancy peaked at 97.6% during the Democratic National Convention (DNC) and, according to CBRE Hotels, boosted revenue per available room in the third quarter 19.2% higher than the same period in 2015. Twenty-three conventions and trade shows of 2,000 or more are slated for 2017 with the Philadelphia Convention & Visitors Bureau projecting up to $660 million in Convention Center-related business for 2017. The spring 2017 NFL Draft and the fall Army-Navy Game will bring a total of 267,000 attendees to the city.

Leisure room nights totaled 1,006,000 in 2016, an increase of 53% from 2007 levels.

Leisure travel now accounts for 32% of the downtown’s occupied hotel room nights, surpassing the commercial share at 30% and almost equal to the demand generated by group and convention business (33%). Saturday night remains the busiest night of the week at Center City hotels, with the occupancy rate hitting 87.9%. The impact of the DNC and increased leisure travel brought more than 5 million visitors to Independence National Historical Park in 2016, up from 4.3 million during the previous year.

Together, conventions, trade shows and leisure travel pushed Center City’s 2016 hotel occupancy rate to a modern-day record of 78%, with a total of 3.2 million occupied hotel room nights. The average daily room rate (ADR) for Center City reached $191, topping pre-recession levels. Adjusting for inflation, however, ADR actually declined, as limited demand from business travelers, the highest rate payers, reflected very limited office-sector growth and the limited number of major corporate headquarters in the city.

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Arts, Culture & Civic Life

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Center City attracted more than 13.1 million visitors from throughout the region and around the world to an extraordinary variety of arts and cultural activities in 2016. This represented an 18% increase over 2014, the last year full data were available. Approximately 55% of guests enjoyed free admission with children 18 and under comprising 20% of visitors, reflecting visitation by 20,857 school groups and the growing appeal of Center City as a family-friendly destination.

With 419 non-profit arts organizations, Philadelphia’s downtown is second only to Midtown Manhattan in the total number of arts and cultural organizations, surpassing the downtowns of Washington, D.C., Chicago, San Francisco and Boston.

While cultural institutions are clustered along the Avenue of the Arts, the Benjamin Franklin Parkway and in the Historic District and Old City, the map on page 28 clearly shows how many blocks in Philadelphia’s walkable downtown are enriched with arts, cultural and civic attractions.

Several destinations experienced significant growth in attendance in 2016, including the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (PAFA), the Pennsylvania Ballet, and Independence National Historical Park. PAFA saw attendance reach 238,000, up 71% from 2015. 

The Pennsylvania Ballet enjoyed an 18% increase in attendance, as did Independence National Historical Park, receiving 5,086,468 visitors. With more than 4,000 murals completed during the last 30 years, the Mural Arts Program’s outdoor gallery drew over 20,000 participants to its events and tours during 2016.

The Benjamin Franklin Parkway will commemorate its 100th anniversary beginning this September with 15 months of events, exhibitions and community conversations, highlighting unparalleled educational and cultural opportunities for millions of people. The Philadelphia Museum of Art welcomed 775,024 patrons, and The Barnes Foundation experienced a 7% increase in attendance. Planned events at the Barnes and at other cultural attractions helped Philadelphia earn accolades from the New York Times as one of the “10 Places to See Public Art in 2017.” The vitality of Center City’s organizations helped drive an 18% increase in citywide arts, entertainment and recreation employment since 2006, as this sector provided 12,000 jobs in 2015, while also increasing the number of patrons frequenting restaurants before and after events.

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Center City’s thriving retail scene is the result of more than two decades of diversified development, as convention, tourism, entertainment and residential growth has dramatically expanded upon the base of retail customers provided by major office and institutional employers. Almost a half million workers, residents and visitors each day generate more than $1 billion in retail demand for goods and services within the downtown core and in surrounding neighborhoods.

As Center City’s purchasing power has continued to increase, so has the demand for retail space as more than 48 national retailers have chosen a Center City location since 2013, diversifying the existing mix of local boutiques and independents, while creating both new entry-level and higher-skilled jobs downtown. CBRE calculates that retail rents in Center City have risen faster during the past five years than they have in all peer cities but Miami. As space became scarce on Walnut Street, both local and national retailers expanded to adjacent blocks, broadening Philadelphia’s prime retail district. The most recent retailers to enter the market on the west side of Center City in the last year include SPiN, SoulCycle, SLT, Warby Parker, Rag & Bone, Thos. Moser, Target, Bonobos, A.C. Moore and Old Navy.

Seeking lower rents and larger floorplates, other retailers are signing leases in new developments currently being constructed in the Center City East retail district on both Market and  Chestnut Streets. They include Target, MOM’s Organic, Design Within Reach, Five Below, Iron Hill Brewery and P.J. Clarke’s.

Retail growth is also occurring on West Market Street, as well as in the Fairmount neighborhood. New entries include drybar, sweetgreen, Naf Naf Grill, Verts, Wawa, bFresh, Natuzzi, Target, Snap Kitchen and the relocation of the Fairmount Whole Foods into a new 55,000-square-foot space, making it the largest location for the grocer in the country. Success in the core is also pushing more price-conscious retailers in outward concentric rings to Center City’s extended neighborhoods.

More than 2 million square feet of retail is currently under development, as older shopping streets are transformed and Philadelphia’s prime shopping district continues to expand. The biggest investment is happening east of Broad Street, where full-block sites can accommodate large-scale projects. Center City East will add more than 1 million square feet of retail over the next few years, representing an $815 million investment in an area that had lagged for decades. The same trends driving new development are increasing the investment appeal of retail properties downtown, with the average sales price reaching almost $700/sf in 2016.

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Philadelphia is enjoying the longest period of expansion since the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics started keeping track in 1969, adding 40,000 jobs in the last 11 years with positive growth in all but one year since 2005. In 2016, Philadelphia’s employment grew by 2.4%, adding 16,000 jobs and outpacing the region and the nation as a whole. Growth has been driven entirely by private-sector gains, with public-sector employment continuing a 25-year trend of contraction. However, this follows a long period where Philadelphia steadily lost jobs and recently has seen a comparatively modest recovery.

As the Great Recession came to an end, large cities outperformed the overall economy between 2010 and 2015. Nationally, while private-sector jobs grew annually at 2.1%, the 25 most populous cities grew at 2.8% per year. Philadelphia lagged at 1.1% per year. To be sure, the national urban average is pulled up by Sun Belt cities like Austin, San Francisco, and San Jose. But Detroit and Memphis have outperformed Philadelphia recently, as did major Northeast corridor cities — Boston, New York, Washington, D.C. and Baltimore. Recent local news is very positive, but limited to a few areas within the city.

Center City accounts for 42% of all Philadelphia jobs; another 11% are concentrated in University City. Center City holds 292,746 wage and salaried positions and approximately 8,500 more individuals compensated as partners, self-employed, or working freelance. Located at the center of the region’s transit and highway network, 49% of downtown jobs are held by commuters from outside the city; 51% are held by Philadelphia residents. 

Transit makes possible a level of density and accessibility unmatched in the region. Jobs are concentrated at 59 per acre in Center City and at 38 per acre in University City, compared to just 4 per acre in the rest of Philadelphia and less than 1 per acre in the suburbs.

Density and transit accessibility enable 25% of the workers from city neighborhoods outside of Greater Center City to commute to jobs downtown, while another 6% work in University City. In all of these neighborhoods, more people work downtown than in the area in which they live. This is made possible by the broad range of opportunities downtown. While 38% of Center City jobs require at least a bachelor’s degree, 30% are accessible to those with an associate degree, while another 32% require no more than a high school diploma.

Mayor Jim Kenney has supported modest reductions to wage and business taxes. But state legislation endorsed by the Mayor and sponsored by bi-partisan leadership in Harrisburg and a broad cross-section of business, labor and civic leaders in Philadelphia will enable the City to reduce more significantly its dependency on highly mobile wages and business revenues and rely more on the property tax — also the foundation for funding schools. With this plan in place, Philadelphia could grow many more transit-accessible jobs, helping to achieve major reductions in unemployment and poverty, while retaining a far larger number of existing residents and recent college graduates.

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Transportation & Access

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Greater Center City is the largest employment center in the region, with almost 300,000 jobs concentrated at 59 per acre, compared to 0.7 per acre in the suburbs. Downtown is well-served by three interstate highways, but its density is made possible by an integrated regional transit system that consists of 13 rail lines, 3 rapid transit lines, 5 trolley lines and 29 bus routes that carry more than 310,000 riders each weekday into Greater Center City. If downtown workers relied on cars to the same degree as commuters across the region, those workers would require a surface parking lot of 2.6 square miles, an area larger than William Penn’s original plan for the city. Aside from overwhelming the capacity of the streets and leaving little space for other uses, those additional drivers would have a significant impact on air quality. During the six-day SEPTA strike in November 2016, levels of fine particulate matter increased fourfold— to levels well in excess of the standard.

Transit enables more than 1 million residents of surrounding suburban counties to live within one mile of a rail station, connecting them directly to downtown’s employers, retail shops, restaurants, educational, medical, arts and cultural institutions. Fifty percent of city residents can commute by transit to Center City in 30 minutes or less; 61% of those who live in Greater Center City can get to City Hall (the geographic center of downtown) in 15 minutes or less. Center City’s transit connectivity is particularly important to lower income residents who do not own cars: 32% of downtown jobs require no more than a high-school diploma, while another 30% require an associate degree.

The Market-Frankford and Broad Street Lines carry 44% of all Center City bound SEPTA riders with the busiest station on each line located under Dilworth Park at City Hall. SEPTA’s bus network carries another 29% of downtown transit riders, with 7 lines into Center City running on headways of 10 minutes or less. Regional Rail lines stopping at 154 suburban stations in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware converge in Center City, accounting for 13% of riders. The trolley lines that serve Delaware County, West and Southwest Philadelphia bring another 8% of commuters, while the PATCO High Speed Line from South Jersey carries 5% of riders. An additional 1% of riders arrive on NJ Transit buses that run along Market Street.

Greater Center City, 7.7 square miles between Girard Avenue and Tasker Street, concentrates 188,000 residents, living at 60 persons per acre, compared to 6 per acre in the suburbs; 62% of these residents commute to work without a car. In Center City neighborhoods closest to the concentration of employment on West Market (Rittenhouse Square, Chinatown, Washington Square West, and Logan Square), 40% or more walk to work. The proximity to businesses and services allows 6% of residents to work from home — double the citywide average. Center City District’s biennial survey of bicycle commuters documents a 79% increase between 2010 and 2016 in morning rush-hour bicycle commuting to Center City.

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Downtown Living

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Greater Center City has capitalized on the growing national preference for diverse and walkable, live-work places. It has emerged as the fastest growing residential section of Philadelphia, with an estimated 188,000 residents in 2016. In the last five years, 25% of all in-movers to Philadelphia have moved to the downtown, including a sizable portion of the largest demographic group in the country, 20 to 34 year olds. Millennials now constitute 40% of downtown’s population, followed closely by empty nesters and a growing number of families with children.

While 87% of suburban residents commute from home by car to work, 40% of Greater Center City residents work near where they live downtown and 12% work in University City. As a result, 62% commute without a car and 40% forgo the costs of car ownership entirely. Unlike single-use, suburban neighborhoods, separated by zoning from commercial establishments, the diversity of downtown provides extensive retail, dining, cultural, entertainment and educational offerings within walking distance.

The compact and intimate-scale street-grid that Philadelphia inherited from the 17th century not only promotes walkability, it reinforces density, concentrating 60 residents per acre in the Core and 47 per acre in the extended neighborhoods — compared with 37 per acre in the rest of Philadelphia and just six people per acre in the suburbs. Density makes possible frequent public transit, cab, ride- and bike-sharing services. Regionally, 86% of all households own at least one car, with 52% owning two cars. In the Core, 48% of all households do not own any vehicles, while the number in the extended neighborhoods is 34%.

Fifty-nine percent of Greater Center City residents have a bachelor’s degree or higher. In combination with the 19 colleges and universities in and around Greater Center City, this critical mass of talent is exercising a powerful draw on employers as, almost monthly, suburban firms are announcing new downtown locations.

Greater Center City has a lower percentage of households with children than the rest of Philadelphia, although 33,471 children have been born to Greater Center City parents since 2000. Parents can enjoy the convenience of walking their children to one of the 19 Greater Center City elementary schools, where 7,899 students were enrolled in 2016. School District data show that 81% of students in public classrooms in Greater Center City come from the downtown, a significant increase from a decade ago. An equally important metric: while many Center City parents rely on the three independent schools in Center City and those elsewhere in the city and region, 76% of children in Greater Center City attend public school, quite comparable to the citywide average of 80%. Bolstered by active “Friends” groups who are supplementing School District resources, enrollment in Greater Center City’s public elementary schools continues to rise, up 5% since 2010 with overcrowding now becoming a challenge in some locations.

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Seventeen major development projects, totaling $808 million, were completed in 2016 between Fairmount and Washington Avenues, river to river. Another 42 projects of all types, totaling $5.4 billion in new investment were under construction at the end of December 2016, while 22 more, totaling $3.3 billion, have been proposed and are in the conceptual phases of pre-construction.

Of the 59 projects that were completed or under construction in 2016, more than half involved residential components: 24 are residential/mixed-use; another eight were exclusively residential. Remaining projects include nine commercial/ mixed-use developments, six hospitality projects, five public space improvements, as well as retail, healthcare, education, and cultural developments. All are categorized by type and are mapped on page 62.

The largest development in the city’s history is Liberty Property Trust’s $1.5 billion Comcast Technology Center. The new tower, rising at 18th and Arch Streets, will add more than 1.3 million square feet of Trophy office space downtown, all of which will be leased by Comcast. The balance of the project will be made up of 12 floors for the Four Seasons Hotel and three condominium units.

PMC Property Group is expanding the former Marketplace Design Center into a 608,000 sf office building with Aramark taking 300,000 sf of space for the relocation of its headquarters. A much smaller cluster of creative office spaces are under construction east of Broad Street, signaling a new interest in the rapidly improving East Market corridor, as well as in more flexible, non-traditional workspace.

Significant improvements in the management of the Pennsylvania Convention Center, a strong sales effort by the Philadelphia Convention & Visitors Bureau and well-targeted, successful advertising for leisure travel by Visit Philadelphia have created more demand for downtown hotel rooms. Seven hotel projects are under construction, including a new Four Seasons, Cambria Hotel & Suites, Aloft Hotel, Fairfield Inn and Suites, the Divine Lorraine, and W Hotel and Element by Westin. These projects will add more than 1,500 new hotel rooms, pushing the downtown supply close to 12,400 rooms by 2018.

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Center City District

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For 26 years, the Center City District has enhanced public spaces, reinforced private-sector investment and supplemented municipal services with a simple, but ambitious goal: a clean, safe and attractive Center City. In partnership with Central Philadelphia Development Corporation, research, planning and advocacy have guided investments and policies that enhance the competitiveness of downtown.

Today, 128 uniformed sidewalk cleaners and supervisors work seven days a week, manually and mechanically cleaning sidewalks, CCD-managed parks and, by contract, two SEPTA Regional Rail stations. They ensure that Center City opens clean each morning and remains clean throughout the day and into the evening. Specially trained crews remove graffiti from the ground floor of building facades, light poles, signs and street furniture. In 2016, 427 graffiti tags were removed quickly from building surfaces, as well as thousands of stickers and posters from street furniture. In 2017, CCD will clean the exteriors of city-owned trash receptacles. This continuous attention to cleanliness prompted 65% of 2,399 respondents to the CCD’s 2016 Customer Satisfaction Survey to rate Center City “much cleaner” than other areas in Philadelphia.

Complementing cleaning crews, the CCD deploys 45 uniformed Community Service Representatives (CSRs) who work in partnership with the Philadelphia Police Department to deter crime, provide a welcoming presence for workers, residents, and visitors and engage in outreach services to homeless individuals. Since 1993, the number of serious, Part One crimes committed each day has been reduced by 39%, while theft from auto has been cut by 89% and retail theft by 50%. Responding to the 2016 Customer Satisfaction Survey, 82% stated they feel safe “always” or “most of the time” they are in Center City. Reducing aggressive panhandling and the number of individuals sleeping on streets and in transit stations are high priorities to enhance public safety.

Overall, the visibility of uniformed CCD personnel is essential to success: sidewalk cleaners at work throughout the day and evening hours send the reassuring message that someone is responsible for the management of public spaces. CSRs report other quality of life problems to responsible public agencies, routinely communicate with the police and engaged in 154,000 sustained conversations with pedestrians in 2016 — the vast majority focused on providing information and directions to places downtown. The continuous deployment of cleaning and public safety teams prompted 74% of survey respondents to report seeing CCD personnel “every time” or “most of the time” they are downtown.

The CCD maintains nearly all of the $146 million in capital investments in Center City’s streetscape and public spaces it has made in the last 20 years, routinely cleaning, updating and refurbishing an inventory of 674 pedestrian and vehicular directional signs, 258 diskmaps, 240 transit portal signs at 84 portal entrances, 66 bus shelter map signs and 55 interpretive signs along the Benjamin Franklin Parkway. The CCD continues to maintain 260 of the 2,189 pedestrian light poles it has installed since 1996 (the remainder are maintained by the Philadelphia Streets Department) as well as the 446 light fixtures on 12 building façades along the Avenue of the Arts and 74 light fixtures illuminating 20 sculptures on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway.

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